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Dopamine - دوپامین 1

Your Brain in Love

دوپامین 1

نویسنده :Alireza Moayedi
تاریخ:شنبه 12 مهر 1393-09:57 ق.ظ

دوپامین ( مخفف است از 3,4 Dihydroxy Phenethyl Amine )

دوپامین یک هورمون و (فرار عصبی) ( ماده ای که موجب انتقال انگیزه و پیام ها در اعصاب می شود( .

از خانواده های catecholamine (یک مونوآمین که برخاسته ازآمینواسیدتیروزین) و phenethylamine (یک ترکیب آلی و طبیعی مونوآمین آلکالوئید ) است که نقش مهمی در مغز و بدن انسان ایفا می کند .

*دوپامین برخاسته شده ازساختارشیمیایی که به شکل آمین بوسیله حذف یک گروه کربوکسیل

 (carboxyl group) از یک مولکول L-DOPA (Levodopa) است .

در مغز , دوپامین عملکردی به عنوان فرار عصبی (پیام رسان عصبی)ایفا می کند    آزاد شدن  شیمیایی بوسیله سلولهای عصبی با ارسال سیگنال به سلولهای عصبی دیگر صورت می گیرد.

مغز شامل قسمتهای متمایز از سیستم دوپامین است .

 یکی از این بخش هاکه نقش مهمی در پاداش ، رفتار انگیزه ای  (reward – motivated behavior ) است .

بیشترین نوع افزایش پاداش ها با افزایش میزان دوپامین در مغز همراه است و اعتیاد به موادهای مخدر گوناگون باعث افزایش فعالیت دوپامین عصبی می شود . قسمت های دیگر سیستم دوپامین مغزی درگیر کنترل محرک ها و آزادی چندین هورمون مهم دیگر است .

چند بیماری مهم در دستگاه عصبی که مربوط به عدم کارایی سیستم دوپامین است.

بیماری پارکینسون (Parkinson’s Diseaes) یک حالت انحطاط که باعث لرزش (رعشه) ومعیوب شدن محرک ها که مرتبط با کاهش ترشح نورون های دوپامین در ناحیه مغز میانی بنام  Substantia nigra(ماده سیاه مغزی) . همچنین شواهد نشان می دهد  بیماری روان‌گسیختگی یا اسکیزوفرنی یا شیزوفرنی   Diseaes Schizophrenia’ نیز درگیر تغییر افزایش سطح (میزان ) فعالیت های دوپامین است و همچنین در درمان این گونه بیماری  که  تأثیر عمده ای در شدت فعالیتهای دوپامین دارد اغلب از داروهای ضدروانپریشی استفاده می شود.

همچنین اعتقاد بر این است بیماری کم توجهی و بیش فعالی (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)  (ADHD) و  بیماری سندرم پاهای بی قرار  (Restless Legs Syndrome) (RLS )  مرتبط به کاهش فعالیت

(میزان ) دوپامین است.

 در خارج از سیستم عصبی , عملکرد دوپامین در قسمتهای مختلف از بدن به عنوان یک پیغام دهنده شیمیایی موضعی  است .

در رگهای خونی ، مانع آزاد شدن نوراپی نفرین(norepinephrine) و عملکرد گشادکردن رگها(Vasodilators)را دارد . در کلیه باعث افزایش دفع و خروج سدیم از ادرارمی شود  .

در پانکراس باعث کاهش میزان تولید انسولین می شود و در دستگاه گوارش باعث کاهش حرکات دستگاه گوارش (روده و معده)  ( gastrointestinal motility) و محافظت از مخاط روده و در سیستم ایمنی(immune system) باعث کاهش فعالیتهای لنفوسیت می شود .

استثنایی در رگهای خونی است و دوپامین در هر یک از این سیستم محیطی دارای یک عملکرد paracrine است .

Paracrine :  نوعی عملکرد هورمونی است که در آن هورمون سنتز و آزاد شده از سلول های غدد درون ریز به سلولهای همجوار و نزدیک به آن متصل می شود و به عملکرد آنها تأثیر می گذارد .

*این ترکیب ساخته شده بصورت مکانی (موضعی) و اعمال اثرات آن بر سلولهایی که در نزدیکی این سلولها قرار دارند آزاد و تأثیر دارد .

عملکرد  انواع داروهای مهم بوسیله تغییرات در  مسیر ساختن یا استفاده از دوپامین  در بدن است .

دوپامین از طریقه  تزریق وریدی (intravenous injection ) در دسترس قرار می گیرد  اگر چه از راه گردش خون توانایی دسترسی به  مغز را ندارد ,این تأثیرات پیرامونی (محیطی) باعث استفاده سودمند برای درمان نارسایی قلبی و یا شوکی ,مخصوصاً در نوزادان تازه متولد شده می شود.

L-DOPA متابولیک (سوخت و ساز) و پیش ساز دوپامین است که در دسترس بودن آن در  مغز بیشترین  استفاده را در درمان بیماری پارکینسون دارد .

محرکهای دوپامینرژیک (Dopaminergic ) می تواند در دوزهای بالا اعتیاد آور می باشد . اما در بعضی موارد در دوزهای پایین برای درمان بیماری ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder )مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد .

برعکس آن و عمل بسیاری از داروهای ضد روانپریشی (antipsychotic drugs) بوسیله مانع شدن و فرونشاندن تأثیر دوپامین است , این داروها در برابر (مقابل ) دوپامین بوسیله مکانیسم ها متفاوت عمل می کنند, بیشترین تأثیر در برخی از عوامل ضد تهوع است .

*مسیر دوپامینرژیک :

در داخل مغز ، دوپامین نقش های بسیار مهمی در کنترل حرکت ، انگیزش و برانگیختن (تحریک) ، ادراک و بازده عملکردی ایفا می کند . علاوه بر این نقش کمی در تولید شیر، ارضاء جنسی و تهوع دارد .

 

*نورون های دوپامینرژیک (نورون های تشکیل دهنده ( ابتدایی) فرار عصبی دوپامین است ) نسبتاً به تعداد کم و در مجموعه در حدود 400 هزار عدد در مغز انسان وجود دارد و جسم سلولی آنها  نسبت کوچکی از ناحیه مغز محدود شده است اما آنها با ارسال طرح به بسیاری از قسمت های دیگر مغز اعمال و اثرات  قوی بر روی اهداف خود دارند .

 

این گروه از سلولهای دوپامینرژیک برای نخستین بار در سال 1964 بوسیله آنیکا داهلستروم و کجل فوگز

 (Professor Annica Dahlström and Kjell Fuxe) ترسیم شد .

آنها برچسب هایی را که با حرف A شروع می شد  "A" (for "Aminergic") اختصاص دادن در طرح آنها مناطق A1 تا A7 حاوی نوروترانسمیترهای نوراپی نفرین(neurotransmitter norepinephrine) * در حالیکه A8 تا A14 حاوی دوپامین است .




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